Dr Raphael Bar, BR Consulting, Israel
Dr Gerald Kindermann, Capgemini-Engineering Switzerland
Philip Lienbacher, Takeda, Austria
The aim of this Live Online Training is to discuss the process of the statistical sampling of
- finished drug products
- packaging materials (primary and secondary)
- medical devices
- starting materials (APIs and excipients)
and to define the prerequisites for implementing a system for reduced sampling and reduced testing for these products.
This course is also intended to give a practical training on the use of the most common sampling standards: ISO 2859-1:1999 and ANSI/ASQ Z1.4. Starting with regulatory and compendial requirements around sampling, this course will also address
- charting and trending nonconformities and nonconforming items
- good quality practice around sampling plans
- Reference and Retention Samples
Participants will learn how to read and to use the standards for selecting a sampling plan with an understanding of the associated producer and consumer risks.
Practical examples and exercises (including polling questions) and Q&A sessions on all three days ensure interaction and that all questions are answered.
Sampling of materials is one of the most important processes in pharmaceutical companies. Today there are more and more detailed questions during regulatory GMP Inspections, both in Europe and in the US (FDA) about the amount of samples to be taken.
Sampling by Attributes is a process of inspecting a representative sample of identical product units of product for presence or absence of nonconforming units or nonconformities before accepting or rejecting the whole lot of product. Regulatory agencies require a sampling plan that utilizes basic elements of statistical analysis or provide a scientific rationale for taking a representative sample according to the lot size. In the light of these regulatory requirements, one may wonder whether the Square Root of N is a statistically valid sampling plan.
According to the revised Chapter 6 of EU GMP Guide, the sampling plan used should be appropriately justified and based on a risk management approach.
Representative samples should be taken and recorded in accordance with approved written procedures.
FDA requires as well in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR Part 211.84), that sampling should be done upon statistical criteria.
In the past the Military Standard 105 D was commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, but this standard has been withdrawn and is now obsolete. Today, either the ISO Standard 2859:1-1999 or the ANSI Z1.4 are applied. These Standards are widely employed in various types of industries which are required by Regulatory Authorities to follow a statistically sound sampling plan.
This GMP Education Course is directed at all those employees from quality control units and production units in the pharmaceutical industry who are competent or responsible for sampling, testing and release of starting materials (APIs and excipients), packaging materials (primary and secondary) as well as finished pharmaceutical products. This course is also of interest to personnel from quality assurance and to those employees from API, excipient or packaging material suppliers who want to inform themselves about the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry on the testing of these materials.
The course does not require prior knowledge in sampling and statistics. It teaches the participant how to use the multiple tables and plots of the Standard for designing a sampling plan.
Relevant tables from the
ISO Standard ISO 2859-1:1999 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
will be made available to the course participants for the purpose of practicing.
For our Live Online Training Courses and Webinars, we use Cisco WebEx, one of the leading suppliers of online meetings. At http://www.webex.com/test-meeting.html you can check if your system meets the necessary requirements for the participation at a WebEx meeting and at the same time install the necessary plug-in. Please just enter your name and e-mail address for the test. If the installation is not possible because of your rights for the computer system, please contact your IT department. WebEx is a standard nowadays and the necessary installation is fast and easy.
Regulatory and Compendial Requirements around Sampling
- History of sample taking and sampling
- Sampling plans
- Regulations: US GMPs, EU GMPs, WHO, PIC/S
- Articles sampled in pharma and bio-tech (discrete units vs. granular or liquid materials)
Statistical Sampling and Withdrawing a Sample
- Sampling Attributes vs. sampling by variables
- Nonconforming items and nonconformities
- 100% Inspection vs. Acceptance Sampling
- Statistical Sampling error
- Withdrawing a sample
- Random and stratified sampling
- Generating a random number with Excel
Acceptance Sampling Plans in ISO-2859-1/ANSI Z1.4
- Structure of the Standards
- Single sampling Plan
- Double sampling Plan
- Multiple sampling Plan
- Switching rules between Normal-Tightened-Reduced inspections
- Producer and consumer risks
- Acceptance sampling of an isolated lot using ISO-2859-2
Acquaintance with Basic Sampling Distributions
- Binomial distribution
- Poisson distribution
- Hypergeometric distribution
- Normal distribution
- Concept of probability of acceptance
Classification of Nonconformities and allocating AQL to Classes
- Classification schemes
- Classification of nonconforming items (Class A, B, C...)
- Classification of nonconformities (Class A, B, C...)
- Examples of nonconformities in pharmaceutical preparations (Optional)
- Allocating AQL to various classes
Step-by-step use of ISO-2859-1/ANSI Z1.4
- Procedure for a Single sampling Plan (Exercises)
- Procedure for a Double sampling Plan (Exercises)
- Procedure for a Multiple sampling Plan (Exercises)
- Exercise in using tables of sampling
Sampling according to the WHO
- Sampling of starting materials
- Full testing vs. testing for identity
- Qualified supplier vs. unreliable supplier
- n, p and r plans
- Criticism of the sampling plans
√N rule: its Uses and Misuses
- Origin of the rule
- Uses and misuses
- How confident is it?
Risks in Sampling
- Probability of acceptance
- Operating Curve
- Misconceptions of sampling
- Determining product and consumer risks in a sampling plan
Producer and Consumer Risks in Sampling with ISO-2859-1
- Ideal OC curve
- Risk of rejecting a good lot (alpha risk)
- Risk of accepting a bad lot (beta risk)
- Determining sampling risks in ISO 2859-1
Sampling and Inspection of Packaging Materials
- Regulations and guidance for packaging and labeling control
- Primary packaging: containers and closures:
- What is inspected?
- AQL for sampling
- Defects in PPMs
- Secondary packaging: labels, leaflets and folded boxes:
- What is inspected?
- AQL for sampling
- Sampling in printing house
- Sampling in manufacturer’s site
- Defects in labels
Exercises with Producer and Consumer Risks in Sampling with ISO-2859-1
- Acquaintance with risk tables of ISO 2859-1
- Guided exercises for Producer risk
- Guided exercises for Consumer risk
- Sampling risks in a sampling plan
How to Effectively Reduce the Amount of Samples to be tested?
- Reduced Testing concepts
- Internal testing vs. external testing
- Using the suppliers CoA instead of in-house testing
- Use of devices to reduce amount of samples (Rapid ID testing, Rapid Mibi Testing)
- What is Skip-lot testing?
- Sampling plan SkSP-1 for raw materials
- Sampling plan SkSP-2 for attributes
- Skip-lot testing of excipients (USP <1040>)
- When Skip-lot testing is justified
Implementing Reduced Testing
- Exercise implementation of reduced testing concepts on real life examples
Charting and Trending Nonconformities and Nonconforming Items
- Run chart and control chart
- Charting the number of nonconforming items (p chart and I-MR charts)
- Charting the number of nonconformities (c chart and I-MR charts)
- Detecting a trend in your inspection quality
- Determining your process average
- Does your inspection data confirm your AQL?
Sampling of Powders (APIs and Excipients)
- Regulatory requirements
- Risk assessment for sampling
- Sampling plans / sampling schemes
- Training for sampling
- Retention / Reference samples
- Starting material Identity testing
- Sampling for the purpose of Assay
- Sampling of raw materials
Tools for Sampling in a Pharmaceutical Plant
- Techniques of drawing samples
- Prerequisites / Requirements for correct sampling
- Sampling devices and containers
Sampling for Visual Inspection of Particles in Parenteral Drugs
- Regulations for sampling for visual inspection
- Types of particles
- Probability of detecting a particle
- Procedure of manual visual inspection (Ph. Eur. 2.9.20 and USP <790>)
- Types of visual inspections
- Inspection of hard-to-see
- AQL sampling after 100% inspection
- Policy of sampling and inspection
Good Quality Practice around Sampling Plans
- How to document the sampling system within the company?
- How to incorporate it into specifications (FDP/raw materials)?
- How to incorporate it into the LIMS system?
- What you should discuss with the supplier! (tailgate samples, pre-delivery shipment samples, statements of homogeneity)
Reference & Retention Samples
- What samples need to be taken
- Regulations on reference, retention & reserve samples
- Quantities to be taken
- Retention periods
Video Demonstration of Sampling activities
- Explained videos on sampling and sampling tools
- Participants are invited to ask questions