9/10 February 2023
The pressure on India is getting bigger because of GMP deficiencies found during inspections. A wide range of FDA Warning Letters and FDA Import Alerts are given special attention. The GMP deviations observed are extreme and partly alarming with regard to the potential risks for the patients. Even elementary GMP requirements have been neglected. Production areas were often found in an uncontrolled status (risk of cross contamination) that medicinal products had to be recalled. The Warning Letter for Wockhardt is one of the most prominent examples. According to an article published in RAPS Online, FDA inspectors wrote in this letter about the location: "a wide range of disturbing allegations, including bathrooms that allowed for the collection of standing urine on floors, products contaminated with glass and unknown "black particles," staff that repeatedly lied to FDA on multiple occasions, and manufacturing lines that were kept hidden from investigators."
At the same time, this shows that effective and extensive GMP monitoring in India is inexistent. An article of the news agency Reuters summarised impressive information on the topic. According to it, 1,500 inspectors are responsible for 10,000 factories. In one out of every 22 samples, lack of quality has been observed. These data come from a study already performed two years ago.
Reuters refers to industry analysts who say that companies which cannot deliver into the USA because of an Import Alert might continue their production and sell their products to other countries which are not aware of those GMP deficiencies. This is a terrifying scenario which is - according to experts' statements - current practice in India. Such serious problems can only be explained because of totally insufficient monitoring of medicinal products in India. A GMP inspector in India told Reuters: "I took salaries for 30 years without doing anything. I visited some of the plants ... not with the intention of taking any action, but just out of curiosity." Reuters quotes an employee of India's health ministry who says that only the US FDA complains about Indian factories. "(...) other countries have no problems with our drugs. They have never raised any objections or have found fault," This statement can be easily refuted. The EudraGMDP database currently lists 38 facilities in India which have been classified as "GMP non-compliant" because of negative GMP inspections.
The lack of adequate GMP supervision (GMP Inspections) by Indian Authorities also raises questions on the EU procedure to require Written (GMP) Confirmations from agencies around the world. In order to import an API from a manufacturer located outside the EU the legal provisions require that a Written Confirmation has to be issued by the exporting countries (only some countries like e.g. Switzerland, USA have been found to have equivalent GMP Inspection systems and do not need to issue Written Confirmations). India has published many Written Confirmations for API manufacturers in India. However, some of the companies who own a Written Confirmation received FDA Warning Letters or EU GMP non-compliance statements only some months after the Written Confirmations were issued. This questions the value of the Written Confirmations also for all other facilities in India not inspected recently by EU or FDA inspectors. The information published by Reuters, RAPS Online and other well recognized media sources may require to initiate additional actions by industry and regulators in the EU in order to safeguard APIs imported from India.